***To the Rogue Stakeholder, You're the Monster. Stakeholder Management Plan.***
Don't ignore the stakeholder - create a management plan and stick to it.
Objections: If I'm authorized to do this project, then everyone needs to just fall in line and support it. I cannot influence a stakeholder without the functional authority to demand compliance. Why do I have to do a stakeholder analysis if this was a project that was selected and agreed upon by Leadership team?
Counter: For 95+% of stakeholders this is true. They are solid middle-of the road supporters - Happy to help, will follow the leader, not pushing either way. But then there is a small minority (tails of the distribution) you need to manage due to their level of influence and support. Different people have different motives, goals, egos, and other reasons (legitimate to them) for supporting or not supporting the project, even if the CEO gives an order. They may not directly defy the project, but may undercut it in other ways. You need to find out who these people are.
Why is Stakeholder Analysis Critical part of success of any project (LSS or others)
1. You can use the opinions of the most powerful stakeholders to shape your projects at an early stage. Not only does this make it more likely that they will support you, their input can also improve the quality of your project
a. Can lead to clear understanding of stakeholders' interests
2. Gaining support from powerful stakeholders can help you to win more resources – this makes it more likely that your projects will be successful
a. Can offer mechanisms to influence other stakeholders
3. By communicating with stakeholders early and frequently, you can ensure that they fully understand what you are doing and understand the benefits of your project – this means they can support you actively when necessary
a. Identifies key people to be informed about the project
b. You can anticipate what people's reaction to your project may be, and build into your plan the actions that will win people's support.
4. Enables full understanding of potential risks, provides awareness of negative stakeholders as well as their adverse effects on the project
Process: Identify--> Classify --> Management & Communication Plan
I Identify Stakeholders
i. Internal – Departments, Process Owners, Workers, Team Members, Executives, Managers
ii. External – Suppliers, Customers, Regulatory Agencies
b. How to Identify – Use Several Methods of surveillance
i. Affinity Brainstorming
ii. Focus Groups
iv. Suppliers & Customers in SIPOC and Managers/Leads who manage teams that are part of the Process
II Classify Stakeholders by level of Power/Influence, Support, and Engagement.
a. “Lucid” Stakeholder Classification Credit: Lucid Consulting. Ref: http://www.lucidusconsulting.com/Publications/Published-books-(1)
i. Trip Wire: Insignificant Passive Blocker Low Power, Low Interest, Negative Attitude
ii. Time Bomb: Influential Passive Blocker, High Power, Low Interest, Negative Attitude
iii. Acquaintance: Insignificant Passive Backer, Low Power, Low Interest, Positive Attitude
iv. Sleeping Giant: Influential Passive Backer, High Power, Low Interest, Positive Attitude
v. Irritant: Insignificant Active Blocker, Low Power, High Interest, Negative Attitude
vi. Saboteur/Terrorist: Influential Active Blocker, High Power, High Interest, Negative Attitude
vii. Friend: Insignificant Active Backer, Low Power, High Interest, Positive Attitude
viii. Savior: Influential Active Backer, High Power, High Interest, Positive Attitude
b. Methods to classify stakeholder influence, support, engagement. **CAUTION** From this point forward all information should be kept confidential. Nothing is more career hurtful than influential people learning your analysis of them. (Password protect. Don’t print or email)
i. Conduct “Covert” Surveillance –
1. Silent Focus Group affinity vote on stakeholder levels of power, influence and support for project.
2. Individual interviews
3. Direct Observation
ii. Methods to Classify
1. Analyze in one dimension macro level
a. Force-Field Analysis (promoters vs. opposers)
b. Preliminary Gap Analysis (PGA) – Classify on likert scale current vs. desired state of support.
c. SWOT Analysis – Strengths, Opportunities, Weaknesses, Threats analysis on whole project, using stakeholders as one of the variables (but also including other impacts on projects)
2. Analyze on spectrum in 2 dimensions.
a. Power vs. Support Grid (1-10, -5 to -5, or other)
3. Detailed analysis in 3 dimensions
i. Power: Level of influence over other stakeholders who also can impact your project success (Recommend -5 to +5)
ii. Support: Level of moral or practical support for or against the project (Recommend -5 to +5)
iii. Engagement: Level of activity and vested interest directly associated with the project (Recommend 0-10)
b. Analysis/Visualization Methods
i. 3D Graph (cubic) --Minitab
ii. 2-D Bubble Graph (Power as Bubble Size – 3rd dimension) -- Excel